Globalization

Globalisation
Globalisation, as a theory, argues that states and societies are increasingly being disciplined to behave as if they were private markets operating in a

global territory. Disciplinary forces affecting states and societies are attributed to the global capital market, transnational corporations (TNCs), and

structural adjustment policies of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank, which are all driven by neo-liberal economic ideology. Some

scholars, such as Stephen Gill, see these agents as representing an emerging system of global economic governance (disciplinary neo-liberalism) based

on a quasiconstitutional framework for the reconstitution of the legal rights, prerogatives, and freedom of movement for capital on a world scale (new

constitutionalism
Globalization, since World War II, is largely the result of planning by politicians to break down borders hampering trade to increase prosperity and

interdependence thereby decreasing the chance of future war. Their work led to the Bretton Woods conference, an agreement by the worlds leading

politicians to lay down the framework for international commerce and finance, and the founding of several international institutions intended to oversee

the processes of globalization.
These institutions include the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (the World Bank), and the International Monetary Fund.

Globalization has been facilitated by advances in technology which have reduced the costs of trade, and trade negotiation rounds, originally under the

auspices of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which led to a series of agreements to remove restrictions on free trade.Since World

War II, barriers to international trade have been considerably lowered through international agreements ??” GATT

Political – some use “globalization” to mean the creation of a world government which regulates the relationships among governments and guarantees the

rights arising from social and economic globalization.[50] Politically, the United States has enjoyed a position of power among the world powers, in part

because of its strong and wealthy economy. With the influence of globalization and with the help of The United States??™ own economy, the Peoples

Republic of China has experienced some tremendous growth within the past decade. If China continues to grow at the rate projected by the trends, then

it is very likely that in the next twenty years, there will be a major reallocation of power among the world leaders. China will have enough wealth,

industry, and technology to rival the United States for the position of leading world power
the politics of globalization as consisting of a tension between the struggle for prosperity – which requires an embrace of globalization – and the struggle

to preserve community value
Globalization is also associated, a bit more loosely, with the “hollowing-out of the state”, . In this view of political change, the national state is not so

much being subordinated or sidelined as acting on its own, in response to complex stimuli, to reduce the scope of its control over society through

privatization, contracting out of government work, creation of semi-independent government agencies, and delegation to other levels of government.

the problem of the influence of globalization on politics,,,, a dichotomy between the era preceding the current one, and the one now dawning. He

characterizes the first era quite simply as the first modernity, a time in which we all more or less played by the rules of national sovereignty: the writ of

national governments ran within their boundaries and there they could do as they pleased. Within those boundaries, corporate and civil society were

subject to the authority of the national state. In the current era, the second modernity, the power represented by national sovereignty can be evaded

thanks to the 21st Centurys freer flow of money, ideas, goods and people. the advent of the second modernity signalling the beginning a “meta-game”

of power, in which national power continues to play an important role, and the rules of national sovereignty remain operative, while, at the same time, the

players are now able to play by the free-wheeling rules of the second modernity if they choose.
The national government is in a position to defend local communities from a variety of economic exigencies through such measures as tariffs to protect

local industries from international competition, as well as a more or less unlimited ability to provide regulatory and financial support to industries, regions

and communities in the form of such measures as subsidies to agriculture and industry and regional development programs. In turn, industry,

communities, and regional governments are severely constrained by the national states rules.