Globalization

GLOBALIZATION AND THE STUDY OF COMPARATIVE POLITICS

1. Globalization is a comprehensive, multidimensional concept that has economic, social, and cultural aspects.
2. Globalization is supposed to cause different peoples, countries, societies, etc. to act in same way and will result in us all being the same.
3. Already beginning to see this: same products, stores, etc.
4. Every national commerce is vulnerable to international commerce.
5. Erosion of sovereignty through markets and give birth to new international organizations (OPEC, WORLD BANK, CNN, etc.)
6. Problem of nonprofit organizations (NGOs) without national affiliation (no loyalty to a particular country). This problem is what global politics refers to as ???spillover???: who does the multinational company (MNC) business executive owe allegiance to ??“ USA or MNC Another example is Red Cross – what country does it identify itself with
7. Expansion of market abroad leads to cultural and social change.
8. The following is an exaggeration: globalization causes serious erosion to the study of comparative politics (fewer national differences would mean less reason to compare) and causes study of individual cultures and countries to be utterly useless. Comparative politics requires similarities and differences, but we have problem if globalization takes out similarities and differences.
9. Globalization as ???Here to Stay??? (meaning ???can be stalled??? or ???irreversible???) versus ???Reversible.???
a. According to rational choice theorists, we can change globalization because it depends on political action subject to human agency.
10. Another aspect of globalization is ???ideology???; globalization is an ideology. The 1999 Oxford University defines globalization as ???a political belief system that both explain the world as it currently is and suggests how it should be changed.???
11. Global markets are a natural phenomenon. Adam Smith refers to there being an ???invisible hand of markets.???
12. Neoliberalism plays an extensive role in creating globalization.
b. They do not support the privatization of national natural resources (that are eventually turned into industries) or tarrifs; less-developed counties need to get involved in the competition and should not receive any protectionism.
c. Neoliberalism is inherently democratic, but voluntary (no one forced to do something).
13. Globalists argue globalization is inevitable and beneficial; anti-globalists are naive, stupid, or both.
14. As a result of long-term neoliberal economic policies, some NGOs (eg. churches, Red Cross) and MNC make more money and have more brain power than countries.
d. If Wal-mart was a country, it??™d be 19th largest country.
15. Implications of Globalization and Comparative Politics: forces of differentiation are doomed.
e. Process of Homogenization and Differentiation: The world is closely bound together in new ways with positive and negative results than ever before, since neoliberal capitalism is the philosophy today. Pace and scope is more extensive than any time in history. Our world is becoming borderless. In a couple decades, we would have reached the ???end of history??? as in the words of Francis Fukyama (FYI: Click Here).
16. Sondrol says to look up ???Washington Consensus??? (FYI: Click Here), which is written from world leaders who promotes neoliberalism and declaring to less-developed countries to ???no more protect infant industries.???
17. Dependency theory is a product from the structuralist.
18. Globalization and Heterogeneity: the world may become same in some ways, but it??™ll be different in other ways. For e.g., South America??™s democracy and its ???super-president??? with powers only President Obama can only wish for will always be different from America??™s kind of democracy and presidency.

Globalization in 3 Research Traditions

According to Rational Choice
* Globalization has profound impact on environment to extract most of sources. (ex: maquiladoras) are U.S-owned assembly plants in Mexico that are very close to the border and are a way of American companies to take advantage of cheap labor).
* Question: How changes in globalization affect actor strategies Consider role of American Unions in fighting for foreign workers rights.
* N(orth).A(merican).F(ree).T(rade).A(ssociation) ??“ treaty between Canada, US, and South America; goals are to get rid of tarrifs or to lower them; labor unions in Mexico do not like NAFTA because they lose jobs and do not get governmental subsidies like American farmers.
* W(orld).T(rade).O(rganization) ??“ intergovernmental organization (IGO) with world leaders that come together to promote neobileralism and globalization; last time they met in Seattle, there were riots by all sorts of people (farmers from Mexico, Japanese fishermen) from different regions of the world and have nothing in common except against globalization.
* World Bank ??“ an IGO that gives money to poor countries with low interest; some 3rd world countries see it as extension of imperialism (dependency theory) since country that gives most money to IGO gets most votes and end up controlling 3rd world.
* Patrimonial state is one where leaders use state wealth to buy off opposition; IMF and WTO condemn patrimonial states and cause collapse of central authority of that country. Both IGOs are partially responsible for the ???anarchy of failed states in Sub-Saharan Africa.???

According to Culture
* Most culturalist see culture as ???static.??? Obviously, culture is not static.
* Modernization- diffusion theory (idea of hierarchy of culture that some cultures are superior and others will disappear with time and be replaced by other).
* Samuel Huntington??™s Clash of Civilizations is about Western Culture versus Islam Culture. He asserted that cultural differences don??™t disappear, but globalization intensifies cultural wars. (Ex: During WWII, US viewed Japanese as ???monkeys??? and ???subhuman??? compared to Germans, who were just considered ???sinister???).
* Globalization is created by White Man.

According to Structure
* ???The more things change, the more they stay the same.???
* Globalization is extension of capitalism.
* Greatest thing is capitalist integration. Capitalism unites the world. Even China has millionaires, which totally goes against tenants of communism. The infection of capitalism.
* Globalization can no longer be ignored
* Anti-globalists (who are generally Marxists and Neo-Marxists) argue that globalization alienates people.
* Focus on relationships between people and organization.
* The structural view of globalization is ahistorical (or nonhistorical) in that it explains ???why??? but not ???how??? or ???where??? globalization happened.

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[ 1 ]. Differences on surface will be less pronounced and meaningful compressed.