Child Develpmment

TDA 2:1 Child and Young Person Development
1.1 Describe the expected pattern of children and young people??™s development from birth to 19 years:

A child??™s development can be measured through social, emotional, intellectual, physical and language developmental milestones. However each child will develop at a different rate and their development may not progress evenly across all areas.
Areas of Development
Physical development includes;
* Movement skills, gross motor skills, fine motor skills and hand eye co-ordination.
* Intellectual development includes;
* Attention span, understanding information, reasoning, developing memory, logical thinking and questioning.
Social and Emotional development include;
* Forming relationships, learning social skills, caring for others, self- reliance, making decisions, developing self-confidence and dealing with emotions.
Language development includes;
* Understanding and acquiring language, developing vocabulary and body language.

Babies begin to take in sensory experience from the world around them from the moment of birth, and the environment will continue to exert a powerful influence on behaviour throughout life. It is learning and experience that will literally shape how that child brain grows and develops.
Birth ??“ 4 Months
Recognise mother??™s voice and smell, learning through touch, taste and hearing. Able to cry to let everyone know they need help. Swallowing and suckling refluxes ensuring they can feed and swallow milk. Falling reflux babies will stretch out arms suddenly and clasp inwards if they feel they are falling. Baby stares at mother when feeding. Startle reflux when babies hear a sudden sound or see a bright light. At 3 months baby is really beginning to take their place in the world, they actively seek the attention of those closest to them, smiles and vocalises to communicate there pleasure. But as there social world expands they face the challenge of predicting other people??™s behaviour and this can sometimes make them anxious. As they are growing more social by the day, they learn to differentiate between those close to them. May show their recognition in the facial expressions and the sounds they make. Babies tend to behave differently towards the various important individuals in their lives. Around 4 months babies become more focused on the world and begin to intentionally repeat an action in order to trigger a response in the environment. For example a child will purposely pick up a toy to put it in his/her mouth. Can follow dangling toy from side to side or turn head round to sound.
4 -6 Months
Smiling, giggling baby will enjoy making new and different sounds, and by six months they??™ll also make repetitive noises. They like listening to nursery rhymes and songs especially those with actions like twinkle-twinkle little star, row, row, row the boat and wind the bobbin up. If you repeat the sounds your baby makes back to them, baby will learn to copy. Baby holds objects up to suck them and put it in their mouth to explore the taste and texture, they will enjoy things that make a noise. Hand to hand co-ordination. Baby will learn at this stage to pass things from one hand to another, at this stage they respond to games of peek ??“a ??“boo and reach out for familiar faces and wishes to be picked up.
6-9 Months
Baby is getting stronger and can sit without assistance, Teething starts, Starts trying to crawl. Baby is learning to become more mobile some babies learn to crawl backwards before they crawl forwards, some learn to walk without ever crawling others are bottom shufflers. Can pull themselves upright at this stage of development children will start to pull themselves up and can stand while holding on to furniture. Responds to your voice and also can respond to very quiet noises if not distracted.
9-12 Months
Learn to drop things babies will enjoy letting go of things or handing toys someone. Although a little unsteady your baby will start trying to walk on their own. Enjoy eating finger foods themselves, respond to their own name. They will be able to say words like mama and dada. Teaching them about shapes when they??™re around 12 months old talking about each shape helps for example ???That was the round one, or ???This is a square???. Normally their eyesight at this stage has developed to be the same as an adult.
12-18 Months
Start to take an interest in words, they will also start to say words and understand them. Gains more independence, children at this stage will begin to feed unaided and want to take off their own clothes like loose socks or tops. Begins to build with bricks they will enjoy playing and building with bricks. They will gradually learn to entertain themself for some of the time.
18 months-3 Years
By 18months -2 years old a child??™s social and emotional development has come a long way, they will show empathy to an upset sibling or family member and try to console them. They will show frustration or have tantrums if their needs are not met, but on the other side are capable of being loving and responsive. Shakes head for ???NO??™, Build tower of few bricks, bang objects together. Wave goodbye, enjoy picture books, point at things they want, crawl up the stairs. Put words together in sentences, hold crayon in palm and make marks on paper. May use comfort objects, by two could be using anything from 30 to 150 words. Push and pull toys while walking, plays alongside other children.
In the third year a child would have gained a certain amount of physical and emotional control, they will feel secure when left away from main carer, may start to use past tense and vocabulary extends. Becomes impatient and finds it difficult to want to take turns, constantly ask questions. They will also be able to play with a ball and start climbing up and down stairs. Will start to use pencils and crayons and enjoy looking at books and turning pages. Now walk and run with more confidence and use toys like tricycles and play with different textures mud, sand and water. The child becomes more independent and self-motivated. Carries a container of liquid such as a cup of milk or bowl of water without much spilling and pours liquid from pitcher into another container. They can wash and dry their hands and brush own teeth but not thoroughly. Their language develops and they can produce expanded noun phrases like ???big red bus.???
By the age of 4 most children will have started Nursery or School and be very active and meet a variety of new people. They are now capable of being very sociable and play within groups of children. They will start to learn to read, may begin to recognise their own names and few frequently seen written words. They will develop more in their physical skills and carry out more co-ordinated movements like hopping, pedalling, catching a ball, kicking a ball and running.
They will enjoy being in groups of other children of similar age, strongly influenced by their peers are more inquisitive and can be physically aggressive but also understands when told to do something.
The Physical development in muscles is rapid, the body mass may appear lanky as though they are going through a growth spurt. They will enjoy vigorous running, jumping, climbing and throwing. They begin to understand time (today, tomorrow, yesterday) and simple motion in terms of one thing being faster than another. Has fun with problem solving and sorting activities like stacking, puzzles and mazes.
They will begin to speak fluently, read out aloud their grammar is becoming more accurate and they start to use pitch and tone. Structure and routine helps them to feel safe, and when behaviour is ???over the top??™ they need limits to be set. Can handle books well, sort objects by size and type e.g. animals, or by colour or shape.
They understand how to solve problems however their ability to solve abstract problems are limited. Will have hobbies they enjoy also will have established hand eye co-ordination, they will be fluent speaker of a language also more confident in reading and writing , vocabulary will grow but may need help tackling the complexities of spelling. Enjoy team games can run, skip, climb, swing, kick a ball and can read independently. They will also take a lively interest in certain subjects by nine. Developing understanding that certain kinds of behaviour are not acceptable and why, and create a strong sense of fairness and justice. Can be arrogant and bossy or shy and uncertain, they may develop nervous habits such as nail biting. Become more of gender like to play with same sex friends, want to fit in with peer group rules. Girls will show early signs of puberty.
The Pre teenager is starting to know his/her own mind. As they near to their teens, they are increasingly able to motivate themselves and concentrate longer so will be able to work more intensely on homework, developing their own thoughts and preferences. By late adolescence, will have established a clearer sense of identity, hormones will stabilize and mood swings will not be as erratic. Begins to seriously consider career goals and thinks about the future.
Unlike many other development theories, Erik Erikson??™s theory focuses on development across the entire lifespan. At each stage children face development crises that series as a major turning point these are the stages that occur during childhood and adolescence.
* Trust vs. Mistrust
* Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
* Initiative vs. Guilt
* Industry vs. Interiority
* Identity vs. Confusion

There is no doubt that for most families the teen years present a challenge for both parents and children, it is often fraught with scary body changes, bulling by peers and surge for independence.
During adolescence children need their parents more than ever, open parent child communication and the encouragement to participate in positive extra- curricular and community activities.
Adolescence is said to be the period between childhood and adulthood at the age of 11 and last until 19 or 20. Persons 18 and over are considered adults in our society. Boys will be starting to go through puberty, and a lot of young girls would have started their periods. Everyone??™s rate of growth is different during adolescence, co-ordination and strength increase greatly and by age 19 have full adult motor capacities. They feel matured and want to venture out on their own but unfortunately they still lack defined role in society.
Adolescence for boys usually begins later than girls and usually occurs at the age of 14. However at the end of the growth period boys are usually bigger than girls. There are some who will try to act older than their years, but for the most part everybody grows in this same pattern. You can begin to understand this age group if you look at its place on the growth sequence, notice its right next to the adult stage, the last step before becoming an adult. This is a time for adolescence to decide about their future line of work start making their own decisions i.e. what to buy with their money or who will be their friends. Adolescents also need to be around other adults, both male and female these can be relatives, teachers, friends of course they should be positive role models.
Boys at this age are beginning to develop sex characteristics such as deep voices and body hair and muscle growth and start to take manly physique. Testicle and scrotum growth begins in early to mid- puberty.
The girl??™s breast gradually starts to swell, her pubic hair will begin to grow, darken and become curlier. By 13 some girls are almost physically mature but there are wide variations in the age when puberty begins and ends. The teenager become self- conscious as changes in their body shape take place, odour occurs and possibly acne develops as a result of oiler skin they need more reassurance.

Social and emotional development:-
The adolescence is preparing for independence and beginning the move away from parents and close carers towards their friends, become more sociable and friends become more important, may spend a great deal of time on the phone or computer. Emotional maturity is constantly shifting, moving them between childish needs and adult desires. Their bodies and emotions are experiencing drastic changes. By late adolescence will have established a clearer sense of identity. Hormones will not be as erratic begins to seriously consider career goals and thinks seriously about the future.
Intellectual /cognitive development:-
This a time of maturing mind and behaviours as young people develop more responsibility for their thoughts words and actions, and start to think ahead to future occupations. The pace of development is dependent on how much guidance is given with regard to helping the brain to make connections between knowledge and practical application in daily life. During adolescence young people increasingly take personal responsibility for finances, accommodation, employment and interpersonal relationships. The process of transferring responsibility from parental shoulders to the maturing adolescent should reach completion at adulthood.
1.2 Describe with examples how different aspects of development can affect one another.

1. If a child is less developed in reading, when it comes to reading time on the carpet or in groups, they may feel uncomfortable and unable to form friendships due to embarrassment and low self- esteem. This will affect their language and social development.
2. If a child is overweight and obese he/she will struggle to do P.E. as they will not have high energy levels and will get tired very quickly. This can make his/her classmates annoyed with them for delaying the class due to his weight. This may leave the child feeling hurt, embarrassed and loose self-esteem and confidence. This will affect his/her physical, social and emotional development.
3. If a child has a language delay, a foreign language as their first language or a speech impediment they will find it hard to interact verbally with others and therefore again affecting their social and emotional development.

TDA 2.1: Describe with examples the kinds of influences that affect children and young people??™s development including:
* Background
* Health
* Environment

Children are influenced by many things, there are no stronger influences that of their parents as they are usually the child??™s first playmates. Parental influence is still one of the greatest factors in determining the ways in which they grow and develop.

Background: Parents will naturally want to see their children do well sometimes in an effort to keep their children safe parents inadvertently hold their children back from exploring the world around them. Parents who are over protective can sometimes limit their child??™s potential. However there are many examples of the kind of influences that affect children and a young person??™s development, parents going through a breakup, separation or divorce proceeding can be very traumatic for a child. Children may be a part of step family where a new partner may have children of their own, which can lead to friction between the children and unhappiness for the child; picked on, leading to issues of low self-esteem. They will lack confidence in their own ability. The child may also have difficulty bonding with their new family all these factors affect a child??™s emotional and intellectual development.

There are many different influences that can play a role in how a child grows and the person they eventually become. The culture that a child lives in adds yet another element to this already complex mix. For example while western cultures tend to focus more on individualism, Eastern cultures are known for having greater collective focus, meaning that the cultures stresses the needs of the community as a whole over the need of the individual. Such cultural differences can lead to dramatic variations in how children are raised. While culture can play a major role in how a child is raised it is still important to remember that it is the interaction of influences that dictates how a child develops. Genetics, environmental influences, parenting styles, friends, teachers, schools and the culture at large are just some of the major factors that combine in unique ways to determine a child??™s growth and learning. Any of these happenings may affect their emotional and or intellectual development. This in turn can affect their behaviour in school and therefore their ability to learn.

If pupils suffer from poor health or physical disability, it may restrict their development opportunities. Health can be affected by low income and a range of social-economic factors such as access to good quality health services and shops selling good quality food at affordable prices.

These different circumstances can affect children??™s emotional and/or intellectual development (Burnham, 210, P9)
???If pupils suffer from poor health or physical disability or impairment this may restrict their development opportunities.??? (Burnham) e.g. If a child suffers from asthma this will affect education, he will lose long periods from school and this will affect his ability to make friends as well.
A combination of genetics and other factors can affect a child or young person??™s health. Some genetic conditions may not be obvious at birth, however some like Down??™s syndrome will be, and other conditions may show up when the child is a few months old. There might be a condition such as Cystic Fibrosis (A condition in which the lungs and digestive system is clogged with thick sticky mucus), Sickle cell disease (Abnormally shaped red blood cells resulting in serious infections, anaemia and damaged organs) diabetes, etc. that have an automatic impact. These conditions can affect all aspects of a child or young person??™s development.
There are many factors that influence child development and for most of them we do have some control. If we have a good understanding of what children need to grow, we are more able to address the needs. Every child needs the opportunity blossom. The world around us has a major part in shaping a child. The location at which the individual is raised greatly affects their development. Rural environment may lead to more exercise and outdoor activities than infants living in the inner city. The parents of a child in a rural area are likely to be fitter and are more likely to have healthy children.
A rural environment would provide the infants with a cohesive and supportive community increasing the development of social behaviour in early age.
Other factors:
* Higher Quality Education in certain areas
* Pollution
* Diet
* Safety within the home

Families who feel confident about their future income and finances can choose their life style. They can choose where they would like to live. Families in the higher social classes tend to live in more expensive housing areas with good facilities for travel and education. Families on lower income are often forced to rent rather buy their homes. Different social class groups often live in different neighbourhoods, but there can be disadvantages in living in poor quality or high density housing these can include noise, pollution, overcrowding and poor access to shops and other facilities.

2.2 Describe with examples the importance of recognising and responding to concerns about children and young person??™s development.

1. Speech and language

If a child or young person does not talk to anyone or even only speaks a few words compared to others this may cause concern. This would socially affect the child or young person because they will find it hard to make friends, work in groups or even interact with adults. It would also affect communicational development because they would find it hard to speak to people and may find it hard to listen to instructions. Early intervention would be the best way to respond to this concern, the first step would to get hearing checked because that might be the cause of them unable to hear properly, so will not communicate with others in case they get things wrong, might have mild moderate delay in understanding and use of language might need to be referred to the Speech and Language Therapy service by the school.


4.1 Identify the transitions experienced by most children and young people.

Transitions are the movements, passages or change from one position, state, stage, subject or concept to another. These changes can be gradual or sudden, and last for differing periods of time.
Some transitions that most children may experience are likely to be starting school or changing from one school to another.
Children and young people have to make many of their transitions without prior personal experience, and it can sometimes appear to them as daunting list of first; first exam, first day at school, first sexual experience. Most of these changes are navigated well by most children and young people, as and when they are ready. The experience they gain and the skills they learn in the process equip them to deal with the challenges of life ahead.

Children and young person can face many types of transition including:
* Moving away
* Leaving friends
* Puberty
* Starting new school
* Moving from nursery to primary
* Primary to junior school
* Starting nursery
* Moving from year groups

4.2 Transition experience by some children:
* Family bereavement i.e. death of parent or grandparent bereavement of friend or loved one i.e. family pet.
* Divorce of parents or guardians
* Moving abroad or Moving houses
* New sibling
* Discovering that a child or young person has been adopted.

3.3 Describe with examples how transitions may affect children and young people??™s behaviour and development.

Transition can be an exciting time of new opportunities, choices and increasing independence. It can also be a time of anxiety and confusion for young children and person and their families as they move on from familiar people and places into ???the unknown??? for all of us it??™s a crucial time for thinking about your life.

The transition that children and young people face can be.

* Emotional: affected by personal experience for example bereavement or the divorce or separation of parents.
* Physical: Moving to a new home class or school.
* Intellectual: Moving from one type of organisation to another for example from nursery to school, primary school to secondary school, secondary school to college or college to university
* Physiological: Going through puberty or long term medical condition.

Puberty is a major transition that all children at some point, will have to go through. It can be a difficult time for both sexes emotionally, socially and physically. Behaviour will change and so will physical appearance, this may make them feel insecure. Males may show more aggressive behaviour as their hormone levels increase and females may become insecure about late development or embarrassed about early development. Both sexes will be very aware of their changes. Most reach puberty at around the same time, some develop earlier and some later. Boys who develop more quickly are often found to be more popular and independent. Girls developing earlier then their friends tend to get teased and have more negative experience. This can lower a person??™s confidence and make them feel uncomfortable.

The loss of a loved one, a friend or a pet can raise a mixture of emotions in a child. They may be quiet and withdrawn, and fearful about what is going to happen to them also scared that someone close to them might die next. They may feel guilty that they are still alive or blame themselves in some way for the loss, feel sadness and grief also anger about the loss. These emotions can manifest themselves in behaviour changes as they can have a profound effect on the child??™s sense of security. They may need help and support to understand what has happened and learn to accept the change.

Moving home or Country
Children go through many transitions between career and settings, many children will have to cope with other changes in their lives. These may include separation of parents or moving houses or country. These changes are more likely to affect children??™s and young person??™s feeling of security and emotional development this affect the child??™s communication he/she may be shy to talk to anyone about their feeling because they are not use to them. When children are experiencing transition they are always thinking of what will happen when they get there will they be able to make friends or will they be left by themselves.

2.3 Communication and Proffesional Relatioships with Children,Young People and Adults.

2.1 Describe how to establish respectful, professional relationships with children and young people.

It is essential that when working with children and young people we establish positive relationships with all children, you can establish respectful professional relationship with children and young people by;
* Giving Children full attention when lisening to them,your facial expression, body language and what you say.
* Showing your approachable
* Giving them support as and when it is required
* Respond politely
* Giving children the opportunity to put forward their ideas and provide children with opportunities to express themselves in their own time and using their own words.
* Be positive and fair

Listening to children and young people is the key to establishing a positive relationship, it is essential that teachers listen to children and young people and then respond appropriately these skills can be modelled to children through speaking and listening.

2.2 Describe with examples how to behave appropriately for a child or young person??™s stage of development

When Communicating with children and young people you need to communicate with them at their stage of development ???age related??™ because children and young people develop at different stages.

Foundation stage key stage 1

Children have varying levels of attention span, the younger children will need more reassurance than the older children, especially when they first start school.
These children are young so they will be developing their communication and language skills. When speaking to them get down to their level as they will get frightened if you are sanding over them while trying to communicate with them. Also ask them to repeat back the conversation you have had with them so you know if they have understood. Make sure you have their full attention when communicating with them as their attention span is very limited and they tire very quickly with being so young.

Key stage 2

When the children go into key stage 2 they have already started to mature especially the way they communicate with each other and their teacher, they will have a good level of understanding will be able to make formalities of conversation, will show more consideration have more patience and act sensitively and take care of the needs of others especially with children with ???special needs??™ they tend to help them a lot more and interact with them and help to keep them on the right path, you will at some point still have to remind them not to interrupt when others are talking but this could be due to immaturity.

Key stage 3 and 4

Children at this stage are older they will know how to communicate effectively with other people. They will be used to formal and informal language, also get more familier with new technologies and using it to communicate with their own friends via text or e ??“mail. Teenagers will start to feel more self- conscious especially if they have to do speech in front of other peers and may show signs of embarrassment.