Child Development

NEWBORN
Physical Development
* When being pulled into a sitting position the head falls back but when held upright under chest (ventral suspension) the shoulders support the head for a few seconds before giving away.
* Lies on their back (supine) with head to one side with one arm extended on the facing side.
* When placed on their stomach (prone position), they lie with their head on one side too. The buttocks humped up and knees tucked under the abdomen.
* When held upright eyes open and blinks at any sound or movement.
* Can recognise mother or carer??™s voices. Cannot hear soft sounds.
* Smell and taste is sensitive and tend to show preferences over sweet, salt and sour taste.
* Touch response is strong but may not respond to light touches, as babies are still sensitive.
* Will hold their hands tightly closed and may open when feeding or when back of hand is stroked.
* Likes looking at patterns and shapes.
* Are startled by sudden noises.
* Are sensitive to textures and change of position.
* Sleeps about 21 hours a day.

Intellectual Development
* Sucking gives them happiness and they learn to recognise sights and sounds of feeding.
* Has been shown to concentrate on faces, imitate such as yawning, and tongue poking.
* Responses to main carer or mother.
* Mood swings changes to pleasure to displeasure quickly.
* Shows eagerness and anger vocally.
Communication and Language Development
* Cries when needed which is normally because of hunger, tiredness, boredom, pain and discomfort.
* Grunts and smiles when happy.
* Explore in their own way of senses using their own movement.
* Moves their limbs when high-pitched tones are heard. Often synchronise actions with the sound of an adult voice.
* Sometimes copy adults who open their mouth wide or stick out their tongue.

Social, Emotional and Behaviour Development
* Responses to mother or carer but does not like to be over handled by others.
* Likes to sleep but alert when awake and likes cuddles.
* Use full body movement when liking bath times or being fed. Sometimes imitate facial expressions.
* Responds to things they see, hear and feel such as pulling faces, showing objects and taking turns.

1 MONTH
Physical Development
* Keeps their head on one side when lying on their back.
* Can turn from their side to their back.
* Can slightly lift their head in a prone position.
* When held in ventrual suspension, will keep the head in line with the body and hips semi ??“ extended.
* Jerks and uncontrolled arm and leg movements are normal.
* When pulled to a sitting position, head will lag. Starts to take their fists into their mouth and opens their hands sometime.
* Shows interests and excitement by facial expressions.
* Can open their hands to hold an adult??™s finger.
* Turns their head towards a diffuse light and stare at bright, shiny objects.
* Sometimes move their head towards the sound but doesn??™t know where the sound is originating. Are startled by sudden noises when hearing particular sound, they may freeze.
* Able to follow movement of a bright, dangling toy that moves slowly in their vision.

Communication, Language, and Intellectual Development
* Recognises their careers and parents, by showing and responding to a range of exciting movements, cooing and smiling.
* Sucks thumbs when enjoying at time.
* Makes non ??“ crying noises such as cooing and gurgling sounds.
* Will cry more in expressive ways.
* Interact when adult holds them face to face by looking, listening, vocalising and moving their arms and legs excitedly.

Social, Emotional and Behaviour Development
* Smiles in response to an adult.
* Looks carefully at adults when being fed.
* Turns to regard a nearby speaker??™s face. Likes to watch movement of moving objects when placed in their vision.
* Like to listen to sound of bells, music, voices and rhythmical sounds.

3 MONTHS

Physical Development
* Keep their head in a central position when lying on supine.
* Can lift their head and chest up in a prone position supported by forearms to have a look around.
* Almost have no head lag when moving into a sitting position. Can sit with their back straight when held.
* Can kick quite fast with their legs alternating or sometimes together. If held in a standing position the legs tend to sag at the knees.
* Can wave their arms and bring their hands together over their body to hold a rattle for a few moments before dropping.
* Can move their head to follow adult??™s movements.
* Can clinch and unclench their hands into their mouth.
* Eyes will move to moving toys from side to side a 180* angle and able to focus their eyes on the same point. Can turn their eyes towards sound especially human voices.
* Will respond when name is called. May at times suck their lip in response when food is preparing.
* Does not like sudden loud noises.
* Are absorbed by looking at human faces and can recognise their mother or carer??™s face in pictures.
* May sleep through night and awake for longer periods after being fed.

Intellectual Development
* Recognises familiar sounds and objects like bath running or feed arriving, shows excitement by kicking legs vocalising.
* Interested around their surroundings including playthings.
* Learns how to get attention seeking and when there is a response by an adult they are at relief.
* Normally friendly when responding to familiar faces.
* Explores and discovers with mouth.

Communication and Language Development
* Will laugh and vocalise with increasing tone and intensity.
* Starts to communicate by cooing, gurgling and chuckling. Coos and squeals with pleasure.
* Can smile in response to speech and takes turns in conversations with adults.
* Will cry loudly when expressing the need of something.
* Understands a cause and effect like, shaking a rattle knowing it will make a sound.

Social, Emotional and Behaviour Development
* Responds to handling with smiles and gurgles.
* Friendly towards in interests with adult or child. Enjoys bath time and playing games with them.
* Less self ??“ centred and reacts more to environments, but does not like sudden loud noises and cries when in discomfort or annoyed.
* When feeding their eyes will not blink when looking at mother or carer??™s face.
* Respond with pleasure to loving attention and cuddles.
* Stays awake longer time, but most babies will sleep at night.
* Smiles are known and strangers faces.
* Likes to explore different textures like an activity mat.

6 MONTHS
Physical Development
* Babies have a better control of their body such as reaching out for a toy using their whole hand for a good grasp and can almost bare their own weight.
* When laid on their back, they can raise their head and lift their legs to try to hold their feet.
* When they are on their stomach, they lift their head and chest in a prone position. With the support, babies can sit with their back straight.
* Kick vigorously alternating their legs and wave their arms in the air when being happy.
* They are able to roll over from back to front.
* Able to hold a bottle and put food into their mouth.
* They use their index finger to point out.
* Their first teeth may appear.
* They begin to explore the surroundings around them.

Intellectual Development
* Babies start to react negatively to unfamiliar people or situations.
* Will watch where a toy as fallen at visual but forgets when it has disappeared.
* They start to understand the cause and effect e.g. a rattle making noise if shaken.
* They smile in response to someone talking to them and seeing their own image in the mirror.

Communications and Language Development
* Babies start to laughs, chuckles, babble, and sequel and make bubbling sounds.
* Hearing all different from adults, babies try to talk.
* Babies cry out loudly when they want something.
* They use the first syllabus of the word ???ga??? ???ga??? and then a double syllabus such as ???goo??? ???ga???.
* Babies take interest in their surroundings and in playthings.

Social, Emotional and Behaviour Development
* Babies sleep less and like to socialise getting as much attention as they can from people and their toys.
* They still friendly to unknown people but start to get shy or anxious when approached, especially when family member is out of sight.
* Watches movements of other people.
* Likes being read to and shown big bright colours and pictures and sung to, it makes them happy.
* Babies like different musical toys or noisy toys.
* Begin to show more independence but gets upset when mother or familiar member is not nearby.
* Becoming to show personality and aware of others feelings of others.
* Show annoyance and anger by having tantrums.

9 MONTHS
Physical Development
* Babies are becoming more independent.
* Without support, they can keep their back straight when they are in a sitting position.
* They can turn their body around to look sideways and when reaching out for a toy without over balancing.
* Can pull themselves up to a standing position by holding furniture or person and slowly walk by taking several steps.
* When sitting back down they tend to fall backwards with a bump.
* They have different ways of moving around like rolling, wriggling, crawling and sliding across the floor with their stomach such as crawling upstairs and downstairs.
* Babies will move their arms up and down when happy.

Intellectual Development
* Very interested in their environment and exploring around them.
* They can tell which direction the toy has fallen and realises it that it has disappeared.
* Can recall familiar pictures.
* Know their daily routine and will follow simple training such as ???give me a hug???.
* They understand and obey to the word ???no???.

Communication and Language Development
* Uses voice with purpose and will shout for attention.
* Babbles by making different sounds in low or high pitch tones, increases and reflects speech intonation.
* Begins to recognise their own name.
* Finds happiness and enjoys listening to a variety of sounds.

Social, Emotional and Behaviour Development
* Happy and sociable around people they are more familiar.
* They like to play alone for long periods.
* Will attract attention by making a lot of noise, crawling over and pulling adults clothes.
* Know what their like and dislikes such as food and toys, therefore can be choosy.
* They have something favourite that they like, like a favourite soft teddy or blanket.
* Wants more independence and if needs are not met then they may get annoyed.
* Shows anxiety when left alone for long periods.

12 MONTHS
Physical Development
* Are able to get up into a sitting position from lying down.
* Can stand up without any support by themselves for a few moments however, with the support of furniture they can walk around more.
* They can crawl on their hands and feet and use their bottom to shuffle on the floor much faster; this is called ???bear ??“ walking???.
* Picks up small objects with a good grasp. Using their whole hand, they can hold a crayon or pencil, as well as turning pages of a book.
* Can see everything that adults can see.

Intellectual Development
* Points out a toy or object of their interest they may want.
* Can re arrange toys on the floor.
* Ability to follow objects they drop and begins to understand that object is still existence even if out of sight.
* Likes to look out the window and watch people, cars, shops etc.
* Shows an interest in bright coloured pictures in books. Enjoys watching TV and listening to music.
* Responds to their name.

Communication and Language Development
* Understands simple instructions by gestures and speech such as, waving or clapping.
* Can speak up to two or a few more words, which are familiar to them but can understand more words.
* Awareness of words associated with people.
* Babbles loudly, tunefully and incessantly. Babbling is more of a speech form for them.
Social, Emotional and Behaviour Development
* Still shy with unfamiliar people but babies tend to be loving with familiar people.
* Fears more to strangers.
* Enjoys getting attention and repeats acts that are laughed at.
* When happy they clap hands to join in nursery rhymes.
* Often want their favourite teddy bear or blanket as a comfort/security.
* Moods can change anytime for e.g. when carer is giving attention to other children.
* Develops an increase in independence and becoming more mobile, like feeding themselves.
* Developing their own sense of identity.

18 MONTHS
Physical Development
* Children can walk without any support for balance, like climbing up and downstairs with rails but crawls down and climbing on to an adult chair, turning round sitting.
* Kneel down to pick up a toy or objects with using a pincer grasp and move around with it without falling down.
* Steadily run but unable to avoid every obstacles that may come in the way.
* Clap hands together.
* Hold a pencil and scribble on paper.
* Feeds themselves using spoon and can drink by a cup.
* Recognise familiar people from a distance.
* Tries to undress and unfasten self and pull of socks.

Intellectual Development
* Children are curious and determined to explore the environment with increasing understanding where things belong.
* Enjoys putting objects into containers and tipping it back out.
* Likes books with big and colourful pictures of daily objects.
* Imitates daily activities such as using telephone.
* Can build tower of three bricks or more.
* Can name some body parts and point them to the correct body part, when asked.
* Responses by their name and recognise other people with different desires.

Communication and Language Development
* Talks continuous whilst playing.
* Recognise up to 6 ??“ 40 words but understands more.
* With their babbling language, they use gestures pointing out their desires.
* Enjoys nursery rhymes and tries to sing.
* When excited and happy they wave their arms up and down meaning ???I like??? or ???more.

Social, Emotional and Behaviour Development
* Likes to play alone continuously happily but must feel secure. Play alongside with other children and enjoys their company but does not play with them all the time.
* Enjoys individual attention with adults of songs, rhymes and books.
* More independent so wanting to do things by themselves like.
* Developing a character and personality of their own.
* Can still get annoyed easily and sometimes have tantrums.
* Enjoys, fun games, tickling, hiding and chasing.

2 YEARS
Physical Development
* Children can now run more safely and avoid obstacles.
* Likes to climb over furniture.
* Walks up and downstairs with one-step at a time.
* Can pull and push large wheeled toys. Can throws ball with their hands however still unable to catch it and trying to kick a big ball.
* Can sit securely and move a tricycle but not with pedals.
* Holds pencil using their preferred hand using a tripod grasp, drawing circles, lines and dots but not properly yet.
* Spoon- feeds drink and chews efficiently.
* Has better control of bowel and normally dry throughout daytime.
* Can bend down with steady position.
* Mind is more concentrated.
* Point out familiar photographs but not recognise themselves in them.

Intellectual Development
* Enjoys picture books and recognises smaller details ??“ turning pages more slowly.
* Involves themselves in role-play or make believe play.
* Can build a tower of six or more blocks.
* Thinking is still connected to concrete objects and what is seen.

Communication and Language Development
* Uses words as well as gestures to express themselves.
* Beings to understand the outcomes of their own and others action such as something falling and breaking.
* Can talk up to 200 or more, understands more and increase in vocabulary.
* Begins to listen with interest what conversations is around and responds towards them.
* Children tend to follow simple instruction and requests like, ???Please bring me the ball???.
* Talk to themselves.

Social, Emotional and Behaviour Development
* Follows carer around the house and imitates, demanding attention, reassurance and love.
* Plays happily near other children, but not share things with other children.
* Jealously start when adults giving attention to others.
* Understands and able to express themselves to how they feel and as a sense of emotions of others and will laugh or cry.
* Helps others but when coming to themselves they like to dress up independently.
* Likes to explore different environment experiences and situations.

3 YEARS
Physical Development
* Can jump from a low step, run, walk backwards and sideways, stand on one foot and able to tiptoe.
* Can steer round obstacles, corners whilst running, and pushing toys.
* Can ride a tricycle with pedals with stabilizers.
* Walks upstairs with one foot on each step and downstairs with two feet on each step.
* Throw a ball, catch it with their arms being stretched out, and use their whole body to kick a ball with force.
* Can use a spoon and fork to eat.
* Copy different shapes and patterns using cubes or bricks/blocks such as, using three different cube shapes and building a big tower.
* Can now wash their hands by themselves and unbuttoning clothes and undressing themselves.

Intellectual Development
* Builds a tower up to nine bricks and enjoys floor play such as bricks and boxes.
* Enjoys to paint, colour in pictures and scribble. Can draw a person with a head, legs, and arms and can now copy a circle, square, triangle and some other letters such as, ???H???, ???V??? and ???T???.
* Matches 2 or 3 primary colours, however sometimes get confuse between blue and green.
* Can count up to 10 or more and say their name and age.
* They can now remember events that have happened in the past and now like to take part in other future events.
* Can sort objects out in different categories by shapes, colour and size order.
* Understands the meaning of time.

Communication and Language Development
* Speech is more clear and grammatically correct, however may still have difficulty pronouncing, ???w???, ???f??? ???th???.
* Can say and understand up to 300 words.
* Will ask many questions, ???why??? and ???how???.
* New words are learnt more rapidly and longer sentences are said.
* Can say alphabets but not able to identify individual letters.
* Still talks to themselves.
* Likes making a lot of noise for attention.

Social, Emotional and Behaviour Development
* Start to make new friends and know the difference between female and males.
* Share their toys with other children to play with.
* Shows symphony for those who are hurt.
* Have a sense of identification and independence continues to grow.
* Enjoys playing with jigsaw puzzles, bricks, trains, dolls, football or anything with crafts, such as drawing, painting and making models out of dough.
* Enjoy being around other people and can think of other??™s perception. Develops some kind of sense of humour and anxiety.

4 YEARS
Physical Development
* Can balance steady and can walk in a line. Can jump, run, walk tiptoe, climb and hop.
* Bounce a ball, kick it with full force and can throw the ball.
* More mischief.
* Able to do everything like an adult can do like run up and down the stairs with one foot on a step.
* They can bend down at the waist floor.
* Can ride a tricycle with their own different abilities and make sharp turns fast with balance and using pedals.
* They can build a tower with different shapes and size of cubes and are able to copy patterns.
* Able to thread small beads on a string.
* Children can now listen to long stories with attention and can now match colours.
* They are now able to do most things

Intellectual Development
* Has good understanding of past, present and future.
* Can now count you to 20 by rota and understands the idea of numbers up to three.
* Builds a tower of 10 or more bricks and can copy.
* They can copy the letters, ???X???, ???V???, ???T???, ???H??? and ???O???.
* Sort out objects properly into certain categories, like big and small, colours and toys.
* They have a sharper and thinkable skill, like remembering their full name and address.
* Can draw in detail more. Can tell long stories, but sometimes get confuse between fact and fiction.
* Likes to tell jokes.

Communication and Language Development
* Speech is still improving with grammatical correctness and longer sentences are being spoken however may still have difficulty with some words.
* They can give reasons and are able to solve problems.
* Can now talk fluently, asks questions, ???Why???, ???How??? and ???When???, and understands the answers to questions too.
* Likes to play with words and learns new words, which are picked up quickly.

Social, Emotional and Behaviour Development
* Most children are more independent but can also have arguments at times with others and can be cheeky.
* They can eat by themselves with a spoon and fork.
* Can brush their teeth, wash and dry their hands without any help.
* Show a sense of humour whilst talking as well in activities however; they can show their sensitive and emotional side.
* Likes to play with other children and make new friends.
* Has own sense of identity and talks freely by themselves and other.

5 YEARS
Physical Development
* Show a good co ??“ ordination, run on their toes lightly, climb, hop dodge, skip and dance rhythmically to music.
* Can walk backwards with a heel on toe pattern and can stand on one foot for 10 seconds.
* Kick and throw ball with ability by focusing eyes on the objective, using their hands more rather than arms, also can ride a bicycle without stabilisers.
* Bodies are getting more flexible, can bend over and touch their toes without bending their knees.
* Can use a knife and fork but may need help cutting.
* Good control of pencils, crayons and paint brushes.
* Some may be able to thread a needle and sew large stiches, looked by an adult.

Intellectual Development
* Can draw in more depth in pictures, example, drawing a flower with petals, stem with a leaf, and people with eyes, lips, ears, eyes or house with windows, door, roof and chimney.
* Try colouring neatly staying within the line.
* Slowly start to understand true and false.
* Enjoys games with rules but may attempt to cheat to win.
* Can now count their numbers using their fingers, name at least four colours, draw name, and draw circle, square, rectangle and triangle. Can now copy the letters, ???V???, ???T???, ???H???, ???O???, ???X???, ???L???, ???A???, ???C??? ???U??? and ???Y???.
* Loves to read and listen to stories and shows a definite sense of humour.
* Build a jigsaw by interlocking pieces.

Communication and Language Development
* Can speak fluently.
* Likes new words, learns songs quickly, and keep on asking what the meaning to the new words is.
* Recognises some written words and start to write a few.
* Can tell long stories and ask many questions.

Social, Emotional and Behaviour Development
* Now mix with a wider group and choose friends or play happily by themselves. Often will play games with rules with friends.
* Knows their likes and dislikes.
* Protective of younger children and pets and shows concern to sympathy and comfort if they are upset.
* Often help children who are in distress.
* Start to show their preference for a particular sport or craft activity.
* Understands social rules of how to greet others.
* Proud of achievements and ready to cope with challenges with praises and encouragement to progress.
* More sensible, controlled, stable and emotionally secure.
* Shows purpose, persistence, and control over emotions.

6 YEARS
Physical Development
* Always rushing around and slamming into things.
* Body is more co ??“ ordinated, strong and eye and hand work together, such as hitting a ball with a bat, which is a success.
* They are more energetic, running around an, for girls – dance and for boys- wrestling. It makes them tired but do not give up or rest.
* More confident.
* They begin to lose their milk teeth as the second ones come through.
* Gaining more strength, sharpness and are more alert for example; can jump off using gym equipment used in schools. Can run, jump, hop with a steady balance.
* Can brush their own teeth, have a bath and comb their own hair by themselves.

Intellectual Development
* Easily distracted because of physical energy, so learning is explored in different methods.
* Their mind is very active so have more than one opinion at a time.
* Decisions are not made quickly as thinking is required.
* Draws more realistic and complicated pictures and being to fill in colour.
* Knows the difference between reality and fantasy; however can be scared of supernatural people in books and television.
* Interested in learning how to read.
* Can write their full name and small stories of their knowledge.

Communication and Language Development
* Their communication skills have increased with spoken vocabulary, so enjoys oral work. Pronunciation is clearer and grammar is more accurate.
* Can remember more things such as rhymes and songs.
* Listens to stories but also now enjoys reading.

Social, Emotional and Behaviour Development
* Often plays with a certain friend circle according to their own personality interests.
* Boys are more likely to fight and girls use verbal taunts when they fall out.
* Can get jealous with one another when comparing themselves to others.
* Loves parties and social functions.
* Are aware of acceptable behaviour and manners.
* Can self-control emotions in their own ways.
* More confident and independent however can be dependent on adults for direction and guidance.

7 YEARS
Physical Development
* Increased stamina level and more flexible especially with a range of activities like swimming, dancing, skating, and climbing on ropes and gymnastics.
* Are able to control their body speed to avoid collision when running.
* Will practice something many times until movement is perfect.
* Can roller skate as well as riding a bike perfectly and well balance.
* Can hop on one leg and walk on a narrow bench and in a line stretching their arms out for balance.
* Can catch a ball with one hand and skilful in throwing.

Intellectual Development
* Able to express themselves when talking, writing and drawing.
* Enjoys experimenting with and manipulating new materials.
* Able to solve problems such as maths, adding and subtracting numbers as well as calculating in their head.
* Begins to tell the time, month, days and seasons correctly.
* Can use a computer keyboard and mouse for word processing.
* Likes to explore about the living creatures and environment.
* Can know the difference between two similar objects.

Communication and Language Development
* Uses communication more in order to reason but shouts if thinks something is unfair and starts making decisions.
* Can speak up to several thousands of words, speaks confidently and listens to what other have to say.
* Use communication and language to explore their own experiences and imaginary words.
* Enjoys exciting stories being read.
* Likes reading with strong characters depicted as heroes.
* Likes to use a range of words so about to write their own stories independently and enthusiastically.

Social, Emotional and Behaviour Development
* Very aware of everything happening around them, no longer like to get changed in front of other children.
* Can control their emotions and able to keep their feelings to themselves.
* Likes to help other children and adults.
* Ready to join into clubs.
* Forms close friendship usually with their own gender.
* Can wash, dress and use toilet properly.
* Can speak up for themselves, like if they were to be bullied at school.
* Personality is quite well recognised.
* Knows what is right and wrong.
* Some children may tend to be quieter. More likely to sulk if upset.
* May fear at times when being around in new environment or being in situations.

8 ??“ 12 YEARS
Physical Development
* Between the ages of 8-9 years, children have an increase of body strength and good co- ordination as well as a quicker reaction time.
* Can ride a bicycle easily and skip freely.
* More energetic in games and enjoy taking part in competitive sports.
* Have more control of their muscles.
* Between the ages of 10-12 years, children are more of a physical maturity, due to girls starting to go through puberty. Their body are more becoming like adults.

Intellectual Development
* Verbal and mental abilities are becoming more sophisticated.
* More independent at thinking.
* Develops a range of individual talent such as art, music, football and dance.
* Moved from thinking self ??“ centred way to being able to see situations from other person??™s point of view and begins to understand the reason behind its actions.
* Ideas of right and wrong, fairness and justice are developing from simple to more ideas that are difficult.
* Able to think reasonably about objects and events.
* Understands the meaning of relationships and gaining more realistic ad accurate knowledge.
* Capable of reasoning when in arguments.
* Able to remember well, are attentive and to express their ideas.

Communication and Language Development
* Begins to understand certain words, which may resort to verbal ??“ downs with family and friends, however may not always realise how hurtful words can be.
* Vocabulary is increased, written and spoken effectively, enabling them to use language in social situations and are chattier.
* Written work and speech are used in complex sentences. Reading is fluent and handwriting is much neater.
* They may be interested knowing about drugs, alcohol and smoking.

Social, Emotional and Behaviour Development
* At the ages of 8-9 years, increase of sensitive and begin to realise others mood of anger, happiness, fear, sadness just like their own feeling but can be argumentive and bossy.
* Can get embarrassed and discourage more quickly but equally be generous.
* Still have less understanding of the feelings and needs of other people.
* Can form friendship quickly of the same gender but also takes interest of the opposite gender too.
* They like to be in clubs such as Cubs or Brownies.
* Shows sense of loyalty to groups.
* Share secrets with friends or close family member.
* At the ages of 10-12 years, children show an improvement of ability, understanding the needs and opinions of others.
* Become more self ??“ conscious and can lose confidence when failing.
* May experience puberty so may have a variety of mood swings such as emotional changes, hyperactive, dramatic, have a larger appetite (wanting to eat more), being bossier, demanding more and sensitive.
* They have more of a defined personality.
* Likes to spend own and leisure time with friends, still with the same gender and now they are properly aware of the opposite sex.
* Through peer pressure they are more ready to talk openly, dress and act like friends.
* More independent but still likes help from adults however can start to question parental judgement.
* Can dislike adults restrictions on freedom and other things.
12 ??“ 16 YEARS
Physical Development
* Girls ages between 9-12 years and boys ages between 11-14 years go through puberty. This is where both genders turn to adult growth, going through physical hormonal and sexual changes, which is allows reproduction.
* They also go through a rapid growth of bones and muscles.
* Normally the changes happen in order, head, feet and hands grow to adult size then arms and legs grow in length and strength and lastly the main part of the body from shoulder to hip a full adult size and shape.
* In puberty a girl??™s physical development include breasts developing, body size, shape changing, and menstruation.
* In boys physical development involves the voice becoming deeper (also known as voice breaking), body size and shape, bodily hair and production of sperm.
* In both sexes pubic hair, sweat and oil glands are developed.

Intellectual Development
* Thinks logically about abstract propositions and suggests systematically.
* Will plan and undertake any necessary preparations.
* Education is a dominant part at this age. Chooses subjects and thinks about their future life choices.
* Can make own decisions and work and think independently.
* Able to think about possibilities that are not directly observable.
* Able to plan well, organise their own thoughts, and use imagination when problem solving.

Communication and Language Development
* Not as communicative a when they were younger.
* Adolescents like to talk about different issues that affect themselves or their friends and get to view their thoughts.
* Have an increase of knowledge and learns different cultures, and English literary writing such as composition, planning, punctuations, spelling, handwriting and English language structure.
* Develops confidence and ability in academic studies for beyond education.
* Learns to speak and listen attentively in wide variety of contexts.
* Learning to be flexible and adapting what they say and how to say it in different situations and people.

Social, Emotional and Behaviour Development
* Adolescents socially have an increase of independence from parents and go towards their social friends.
* They go through making own decisions, testing the limits to authority, being in relationships and finishing of their studying or leaving home.
* They are less concerned about adult??™s decision; friends influence causes this at this age. Influences from others can include dress and behaviour codes.
* Interested in opposite sex involving feelings that has not been felt or dealt before.
* Can have different mood swings as hormonal changes and emotional development.
* May become anxious, self-conscious, low esteem and no confidence, for example, too fat, too thin, too short, too tall.
* Can be misunderstood at times and may keep a dairy.

17 ??“ 19 YEARS
Physical Development
* After finishing puberty, they are now familiar with their new adult body and therefore have developed a greater sense of himself or herself as a person.
* They have reached adults height.
* Begin to look towards future and career paths by furthering their education for example college.
* Some will find themselves working in jobs.
* Will start to form new friends and may even form romantic relationships.

Communication and Language Development
* Increased concern for the future.
* Defined work habits such as showing greater capacity for setting goals to reach high in life.
* May even move away from family to make a fresh start in life.
* Have a fully understanding of the world and environment around them however may need advice from friends or an adult.
* Socialise more but can be self-absorbed.

Social, Emotional and Behaviour Development
* Developed sense of humour.
* Most young people??™s likes to socialise with different ethnicities.
* More independent and the ability to make own decisions along with the actions they may decide upon. Firmer sense of themselves.
* Live away from home. May take risk in behaviour such as drugs, alcohol and smoking, bullying, violence and spoken bad language.

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