Global Warming

GLOBAL WARMING

ESSAY PLAN
???GLOBAL WARMING???

Introduction
-Define Global Warming.
Use Ref: Distance Learning Centre (2011)

Main Body
(Part 1)
-Many scientists believe the global warming is caused by human activities.
Use Ref: American Institute of Physics
IPCC AR4 SYR (2007)

Distance Learning Centre (2011)

(Part 2)
-The Kyoto Protocol aims at fighting Global Warming. It gives industrialised countries an individual limit of GHGs they can make.
-UK contribution on the Kyoto protocol (Office of National Statistics 2010).
Use Ref:Brown, P (2005) What is this Kyoto thing all about anyway UK:The Guardian;
(citation George W. Bush 2001)

(Part 3)
-Scepticism. Increase of sceptics around man-made Global Warming.
Use Ref:Freeman Dyson(2009)
Mention ???Petition Project???(2008)
Conclusion
-Summarise all facts. Instead of shifting responsibilities, we all should do something to help.

Date:20/11/2011 ESSAY DRAFT
Deadline: 25/11/2011
Global Warming refers to the rising average temperature of Earths atmosphere. An increase in global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation, and a probable expansion of subtropical deserts. Warming is expected to be strongest in the Arctic and would be associated with continuing retreat of glaciers, permafrost and sea ice. Other likely effects of the warming include more frequent occurrence of extreme weather events including heatwaves, droughts and heavy rainfall events, species extinctions due to shifting temperature regimes, and changes in agricultural yields. Warming and related changes will vary from region to region around the globe, with projections being more robust in some areas than others .
Consequently, glaciers are melting, cloud forests are drying, sea levels are constantly rising and wildlife is trying to keep up with all these changes that affect directly on their survival. Many organizations use the term global warming but, there is no universal definition for this term.
Scientists are more than 90% certain most of it is caused by concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities such as deforestation and burning fossil fuel. These findings are recognized by the national science academies of all major industrialized countries.
The rest of this increase is caused mostly by changes in land-use, particularly deforestation.
These findings are recognized by the national science academies of all major industrialized countries(University of Illinois,Chicago,2009).
A greenhouse gas (GHG) is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infra-red range. The primary greenhouse gases in the Earths atmosphere are water vapour, CO2, methane, nitrous oxide and ozone. Nowadays, the auto mobiles, heat from homes and businesses, and factories are responsible for about 80% of todays carbon dioxide emissions, 25% of methane, and 20% of the nitrous oxide emissions. Agriculture, deforestation, landfills, industrial production, and mining also give carbon dioxide emissions but in a minimal amount. Greenhouse gases greatly affect the temperature of the earth; without them, Earths surface would be on average about 59F colder than at present (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,2007).

The IPCC (2007) suggests that the future climate changes will include further global warming, sea level rise and a probable increase in the frequency of some extreme weather events.

The KYOTO protocol was adopted on 16th February 2005 aiming at fighting global warming. This protocol gives each of the industrialised countries of the world an individual limit to the greenhouse gases they can make. However, the reductions overall are very small compared with the cuts that scientists say are necessary to achieve a stabilisation of the climate(Paul Brown 2005).

The UK agreed to a reduction of 12.5% on CO2 emissions. The calculation of CO2 emissions is done by the volume of fossil fuels it burns, usually through imports and the tax system.

Many scientists around the world do not believe human activities are the main cause of global warming. Only the Petition Project(2008) has 31.000 scientists who have signed a petition saying that they dont believe in man-made global warming.

The rate of warming is increasing, the arctic ice is disappearing affecting all forms of life and xtreme tropical storms are happening ceasing thousands of lives. Regardless of who is responsible, we all live in the same world, same atmosphere; we all breathe the same air;we all should do something to help.

ESSAY

Global warming is the continuation of the rising average temperature of Earths atmosphere and oceans. Consequently, glaciers are melting, cloud forests are drying, sea levels are constantly rising and wildlife is trying to keep up with all these changes that affect directly on their survival. Many organizations use the term global warming but, there is no universal definition for this term.
Scientists are more than 90% certain most of it is caused by concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities such as deforestation and burning fossil fuel. These findings are recognized by the national science academies of all major industrialized countries(University of Illinois,Chicago,2009).
A greenhouse gas (GHG) is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infra-red range. The primary greenhouse gases in the Earths atmosphere are water vapour, CO2, methane, nitrous oxide and ozone. Nowadays, the auto mobiles, heat from homes and businesses, and factories are responsible for about 80% of todays carbon dioxide emissions, 25% of methane, and 20% of the nitrous oxide emissions. Agriculture, deforestation, landfills, industrial production, and mining also give carbon dioxide emissions but in a minimal amount. Greenhouse gases greatly affect the temperature of the earth; without them, Earths surface would be on average about 59F colder than at present (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,2007).

Even if greenhouse gases were stabilised at 2000 levels, a further warming of about 0.5C (0.9 F) would still occur. With the industrial revolution, humans have increased the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere by more than a third. With the concentrations of GHGs rising, Antarctica,Greenland and other ice sheets are starting to melt. The extra water could potentially raise sea levels significantly. As well, extreme changes affecting the weather are happening such as storms, volcanoes, tornadoes, tsunamis and earthquakes.

The IPCC (2007) suggests that global average temperatures have risen over past 1000 years: most of the change has been in the past century as the world industrialised and population has grown rapidly. From fluctuating in a narrow band around 0.5?°C below the average 1990 temperature, it has started to rise sharply and is most likely to be between 1.5?°C and 5.5?°C above current temperatures by 2100(see Appendix A).

When trees die and decompose, CO2 is released. The same happens when trees are cut down and used for fuel. The carbon found in fossil fuels was laid down over millions of years. Because the organisms did not decay completely, the carbon was never released into the atmosphere as CO2. Instead, it was stored up in the earth. Once fuel has been recovered, processed and burned, the CO2, which would normally have been released over tens of millions of years, is suddenly all released within a period of a few hundreds years, thus increasing the amount of CO2 in the environment.

The KYOTO protocol was adopted on 16th February 2005 aiming at fighting global warming. This protocol gives each of the industrialised countries of the world an individual limit to the greenhouse gases they can make. However, the reductions overall are very small compared with the cuts that scientists say are necessary to achieve a stabilisation of the climate(Paul Brown 2005).

Industrialised countries took the blame for the greenhouse effect as they burn most fossil fuels, especially US and Japan. In Europe there were 34 industrial countries which agreed to targets.

US, the worlds largest emitter of greenhouse gases(36%), refused to ratify the protocol because politicians thought that China and other developing countries would gain competitive advantage over them, not having the costs of reducing emissions. Australia, Liechtenstein and Monaco joined US .”Well be working with our allies to reduce greenhouse gases, but I will not accept a plan that will harm our economy and hurt American workers.” (George W. Bush 2001)

The UK agreed to a reduction of 12.5% on CO2 emissions. The calculation of CO2 emissions is done by the volume of fossil fuels it burns, usually through imports and the tax system. A 2010 poll found that 75% of UK respondents were at least “fairly convinced” that the worlds climate is changing, compared to 87% in a similar survey in 2006(Office of National Statistics 2010). The government has taken measures to meet the targets established by forcing electricity distributors to buy electricity from ???green power??? offering UK consumers ???green??? alternatives such as gas-condensing boilers, long-life light bulbs and schemes to insulate peoples homes; also, recycling of biodegradable rubbish such as paper and organics that contribute to the increase of methane, a more potent greenhouse gas than CO2.

On the other hand, many scientists around the world do not believe human activities are the main cause of global warming. Only the Petition Project(2008) has 31.000 scientists who have signed a petition saying that they dont believe in man-made global warming.

Freeman Dyson(2009) argues that the climate of the earth is an immensely complicated system and nobody is close to understanding it.

Finally,it is worth pointing out that mother nature is a mystery. Fact is, the rate of warming is increasing, the arctic ice is disappearing affecting all forms of life and extreme tropical storms are happening ceasing thousands of lives. The question is, “why” Regardless of who is responsible, we should all do something to help.

References

American Institute of Physics (2001) Global Climate Change,FYI:The AIP Bulletin of Science Policy News.

Brown, P (2005) What is this Kyoto thing all about anyway UK:The Guardian.

British Broadcasting Corporation, 2007 Climate Scepticism: The top 10. BBC, [online], Available :

http://news.bbc.co.uk/I/hi/In depth/629/629/7074601.stm [02/06/2011]

Digest of Education Statistics (2008) : Over 31.000 scientists signed the OISM Petition Project..Skeptical science.

IPCC AR4 SYR (2007) Climate Changes 2007.Core writing Team;Pachouri,RK; and Reisinger.

Lemonick, M.D (2009) Freeman Dyson takes on the climate establishment. Yale Environment 360.

Office of National Statistics (2010) Green-fatigue grows as numbers of climate changes sceptics doubles,[online], Available: http://www.clickgreen.org.uk/news.html [28/01/2011].

Bibliography

Distance Learning Centre (2011) Student Resource Global Warming :What is global warmingAuthor

Guggenheim,D.,2006.An inconvenient Truth,. Available from: http://www.climatecrisis.net/an inconvenient truth/photos and videos.php [02/06/2011]

Ronald Bailey, ed. Earth Report 2000: Revisiting the True State of the Planet. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000.

Appendix A

IPCC (2007)

///