The rate of development can depend on the amount of stimuli and the interaction given to the child.? Environmental factors and relationships, at first parental and later with peers can have an effect on emotional development.?
Reflexes ??“ swallowing, routing and sucking
Head falls back when child is sat up. When held in a sitting position the head falls forward, back curved.
When lay on back limbs are bent.
When on it??™s front the newborn will get into the foetal position, knees up. The newborn cannot lift its head or stretch out it??™s limbs.
The pupils react to light and when the child is held up the eyes open. Sudden sounds cause the eyes to open wide or blink as can focus on objects within a meters distance.? They show a preference for human faces over other objects.? Recognition of mother??™s voice as familiar.? Cannot hold own head up right.? Hold thumbs under fingers.? Open eyes when held upright.? Attentive to lights or shiny objects.? Blink in response to movement or sound but cannot hear very soft sounds.? Sensitive to sudden movements and change in position.? ? a reaction to being startled. Bright lights cause the eyes to shut.
Bonding with caregiver. Use whole body movement to communicate pleasure and displeasure.? Display pleasure when embraced or breast fed.? Respond to speech with an expression of concentration, later with a smile.? At first smiling is involuntary but by two months the child will smile in response to a recognised face.? They try to imitate facial expressions.? Cry to express needs such as hunger.? ?
Cries vary in their pitch and length of time.
When lay on its front the child can now lift its chin and when lay on its back can move head from side to side. Is able to flex its limbs and hands make a fist. Eyes follow dangling objects.
Watches mothers face and facial expressions. Is becoming more alert. May smile but not a emotional response at this stage. Being picked up and held stops crying.
There is more differentiation in cry to communicate different needs. Attention given to the sound of a voice and rattle.
Using senses to explore
Seek attention and interaction
Can turn its head and makes eye contact. When in a lying down position pelvis is flat. when held in a sitting position the back and neck are firmer. Grasps when things are placed in hands.? When lying n its back, can turn onto side.? Kicks legs either separately or at the same time.
Pleasure at routine.? Begins to understand its existence as separate from others.? When caregiver leaves the room may become distressed as does not understand that they will return.? Shows fear and excitement.? Interaction is important, will respond positively to positive interaction.? If the child does not gain this he or she may stop attempting interaction. ? Attempt to imitate the sounds made by the people around them to express happiness.? The child is also able to express anger at this stage.?
Interest in hands.? Will make sounds and wait for a response.? Will imitate sounds.? Recognises caregiver.
Relax when sang to and enjoying time spent and personal care with care giver.?
When on back can lift the head and shoulders.? When lying on its front the child can raise itself, using its hands.? Can sit up with help and has a strong kick.? When held up with feet touching the floor the child likes to stand and jump.? Might roll over.? Will grasp and can move an object from one hand to the other.? The sense of sight is well established.
Puts objects to the mouth.? Responds to the emotions of? their caregiver. ? Negative reactions to strangers.? Tightens grip when an object is being taken from them.?
Tuneful in vocalisation.? Laughs when playing and screams when annoyed.
Shows interest in feet.? Understands the purpose of rattle.
Anger is expressed when distracted from an activity.? Pleasure at routine.?
Begin to build social contact with others.? Enjoy the presence of other babies.? ?
Can crawl and can sit.? Tries to stand but will fall.? Attentive to visual stimuli.? Can grasp using thumb and index finger and learned to release grip, dropping the object.? Will look for dropped objects.? Can hold a bottle or a cup and will begin to eat using fingers.
Will be playing peek-a-boo and will imitate hand clapping.? Will stay close to adults that are familiar to them. ? Begins to empathise with emotions of others.? ?
Will be vocal in order to gain attention.? Will babble often.
Watches other people with great interest.? Able to find toys that are part hidden.? Will know their name.? Will show interest in books with lots of pictures.
Gives and receives embraces.? Enjoy interactive games.?
Seeks praise and shows displeasure if they do not get what they desire. ?
Is able to walk while holding an adult hand, or may even walk alone.? Will point at objects, is able to pick up smaller objects using a pincer grip.? Is able to hold a spoon.? Can bend to pick things up and is able to stand up or sit down at will.? Can place a cube into a box or other receptacle.
Will co-operate in getting dressed.? Will be affectionate with others.? Will like to participate in nursery rhymes.? Will wave to communicate hello or goodbye.
Can respond to simple instructions and can understand several words. ?
Can walk and will be able to climb stairs crawling on their front, or crawl downstairs on their back.? Still has poor balance.? Can kneel independently. Can grip a crayon.? Can place one cube on top of another to create a tower.? Can turn pages, use a spoon and place objects down with precision.
Is emotionally dependent on caregiver.? Will communicate when they have soiled or wet themselves.? Will assist when getting dressed.
Will jabber? loudly.? Will have between two and six recognised words.? Is able to make their needs known.
Can replicate a line drawn by an adult.? Is becoming incredibly curious about their surroundings.
Will be able to climb stairs with someone holding their hand.? Will run but quite cautiously.? Has learned to push, pull and carry objects.? Is able to squat independently and back into a chair small enough.? Will begin to scribble and will be displaying a preference for using one hand more than the other.? Can build a tower using three cubes.? Can drink without spilling any.
Will be able to control bowel at times.? Will imitate domestic tasks that the child has observed adults doing.? Will sometimes be clingy and sometimes want space.? Will be quite happy to play alone with a familiar adult nearby.? Will attempt to sing.
Will echo the last word in a sentence spoken by an adult.? Jabbering will by now be an established form of communication.? Will have a vocabulary of six to twenty words that they will recognise and understand. ?
Will explore its environment with great interest and energy.? Will enjoy picture books a great deal and will be able to recognise some of the characters.? Will recognise the names of some parts of the body.
Is now able to run confidently and avoid objects in its path.? Will be able to walk up stairs with two feet to each step, holding onto the wall.? Can climb up onto furniture and climb back down again.? Can squat down? ? and get up again without using its hands.? Will push a tricycle along using its feet and be able to steer it.? Can kick a large ball and throw smaller balls in an over arm motion.? Can turn pages one page at a time.? Can hold a pencil with index finger, middle finger and thumb near to the point.? Can create a tower of six cubes. ?
Is able to drink from a cup and eat using a spoon well.? Is aware of the needs it has physically.? Is able to put a hat and shoes on.? Is extremely interested in the outdoors and eager to explore, but is not yet aware of any dangers.? Will become quite demanding of attention and may cling to their main caregiver.? Will enjoy parallel play with others but will also be prone to tantrums when he/she does not get what he/she desires. ?
Can recognise known adults in photographs and will be capable of recognising small details in the photograph.
The child will use its own name when referring to his or her self.? Will be able to hold a short simple conversation and converse in short two or three word sentences.? Will ask about the names of things.? Will talk to themselves.
Will still climb the stairs with two feet to a step but may? jump off lower steps.? Will be able to peddle and steer a tricycle.? Can use a pair of scissors to cut paper.? Can create a nine cube tower and a bridge with three.? Can use a pencil very well. ?
Can use a spoon or a fork.? Will be able to attend to their own care with greater independence.? Will be more co-operative with adults and in play and be affectionate.? Has a desire to please others.? Will be able to stay dry in the night and the daytime.? Will be able to name colours able to match three primary colours.? Speech and understanding have become well developed though some pronunciations are still child like and may not be entirely grammatically correct.? ?
Interest in words and numbers.? Is able to copy a drawing of a circle, and some lettering.? Can draw a picture of a person with a head and two other body parts.? Becoming very curious and inquisitive, asking lots of questions.? Can relate past and present experiences.? Knows its age, gender and name.
Can control muscles well and can turn a sharp corner at running speed.? Can hop for a short while on one preferred foot, for between three and five seconds.? Becoming more skilled at ball games.? Can sit with crossed knees.? Can build a tower with ten cubes and use six to build steps when shown by an adult. ?
Will learn how to be bossy and to boast.? Will answer back and want increased independence.? Will be co-operative and plan games to play.? Will be learning how to share, but will still argue with other children.
Will have more mature pronunciations and will use the correct grammar for the most part.? Will ask for the meaning of words.? May swear, will enjoy verse, and jokes.? Can count to twenty.? ?
Can draw a person with a head, legs and a trunk, and be able to draw a simple picture of a house.? Good imaginative play.
Can bend down and touch toes while legs are kept straight.? Will be able to hop on either foot.? Will run on toes.? Able to walk along a thin line.? Can build steps using three or four steps.? Will colour carefully within lines.? Is able to copy adult writing.
Can cope better with personal needs.? Will choose their friends and keen of socialising.? Will be forming an understanding of rules and will understand the concept of playing fairly.
Speech is now fluent and grammatically correct.? Imaginary play now includes make-believe.
Can match colours and copy a square, triangle and several letters and adult writing.? Can draw a picture of a person with detail and write his or her name.? Can complete tasks willingly.? Knows own address.? Will use objects to count.
Can jump over a rope that is 25cm high.? Can tie shoe laces.? Will be learning to skip with a rope.
Seeks out new experiences.? Will be becoming less sociable but more demanding and more stubborn.? Having a group of friends becomes important but may be quite argumentative.? Feels a need to succeed as failure begins to affect self esteem. ?
Good at reading. ?
Can produce detailed drawings with precision.? Can describe difference.? Becoming more developed at maths and may begin to use symbols instead of? objects to count.? Is able to describe difference.? May write.
Can ride a bicycle without stabilisers as balance has improved greatly.? There is constant improvement with greater precision and dexterity in all areas. ?
Very likely to have a best friend at this stage.? The opinions of peers become important.? Enjoys spending some time alone.? Interest in television and books.? May at times be moody.? May attempt to challenge themselves by attempting tasks that are a little too difficult at this stage.
Will be starting to move towards more abstract thought.? Can write a paragraph unaided and can read.? Is able to comprehend opposites.
Skills still improving constantly and movement is co-ordinated.? Will play team games.? Can swim.? Drawing more complex images.
Gaining a better self understanding and will want more independence.? Friend becoming increasingly important.? ? ?
Has a better level of concentration.? Can read fluently and construct a story.? May think more scientifically and play complicated games such as chess.
The onset of puberty causes changes in hormones, the growth of body hair, changes in skin and growth spurts.? Will develop skills depending on interest.
Rebellion against authority and mood swings are common.? Develop an interest in sex.? May experiment, trying out different identities in attempt of self discovery.